 Unsystematic risk is the risk that occurs because of a company’s operation, while systematic risks are those occurring in the market that cannot be avoided by diversification of stocks. Explore how each type of risk is evaluated and the significance of diversification in an investment portfolio. See Table 3 for interest expense and carrying value calculations over the life of the bond using the straight‐line method of amortization . The stated rate of interest (times 1/2 for semiannual) is not used for calculating the interest expense. Let’s take a look at the concept of effective interest rate from the bond investor’s point of view. We will solve the problem assuming first the effective interest rate method, and then the straight-line method.

• Explain the two methods to amortize the bond premium and discount.
• If you make this choice, you must reduce your basis in the bond by the amortization for the year.
• Amortization of the discount may be done using the straight‐line or the effective interest method.
• The interest expense in column C is the product of the 4% market interest rate per semiannual period times the book value of the bond at the start of the semiannual period.
• On February 1, 1999, A purchases for \$110,000 a taxable bond maturing on February 1, 2006, with a stated principal amount of \$100,000, payable at maturity.
• Under these conditions,it is necessary to amortize the discount or premium over the life of the bonds by using either the straight-line method or the effective interest method.

The corporation, however, must distinguish between interest payments and premium amortization on its account statements. Bond premium amortization is a method in accounting that companies use to record the payments they make to bondholders above the face value of their bonds plus the interest payments.

## What Is Straight Line Interest Method?

Under the straight-line method the interest expense remains at a constant annual amount even though the book value of the bond is decreasing. The accounting profession prefers the effective interest rate method, but allows the straight-line method when the amount of bond premium is not significant. Note that this amount is referring to the amount of the bond premium/discount that is yet to be amortized. Under the straight-line method, bond premium is amortized equally in each period. The constant-yield method will give you a smaller amortization amount than the straight-line method in early years, with the constant-yield amortization figure growing in later years. That puts it at a overall disadvantage to the straight-line method from the taxpayer’s standpoint, which might be one reason why tax laws were changed to have newer bonds use the less favorable method. According to the effective interest rate method, the adjustment reflects the reality better.

## Defining Issues

The second way to amortize the premium is with the effective interest method. The effective interest method is a more accurate method of amortization, but also calls for a more complicated calculation, since it changes in each accounting period. This method is required for the amortization of larger premiums, since using the straight-line method would materially skew the company’s results. Notice that under both methods of amortization, the book value at the time the bonds were issued (\$104,100) moves toward the bond’s maturity value of \$100,000.

As a result, upon the exercise of a call on a callable debt security held at a premium, the unamortized premium is recorded as a loss in earnings. The amortization of a bond and the indirect method of cash flow both involve non-cash interest expense. When solving for cash flow using the indirect method, accountants must adjust any non-cash expenses from net income, an accounting profit containing both cash and non-cash expense elements. Thus with bond amortization, accountants further discount, or adjust, the indirect method of cash flow on related interest expense. Depending on the type of bond amortization, the adjustment to net income can be an addition or a subtraction.

This document contains final regulations that provide guidance on the tax treatment of a debt instrument with a bond premium carryforward in the holder’s final accrual period. The regulations in this document provide guidance to holders of Treasury securities and other debt instruments acquired at a premium. The journal entries made by Lighting Process, Inc. to record its issuance at par of \$10,000 ten‐year bonds with a coupon rate of 10% and the semiannual interest payments made on June 30 and December 31 are as shown. Both bond amortization methods give the same final results. However, they differ in the pace of interest expenses.

In this case, the effective rate would be a 7% ROI on the difference between the investment and the maturity value, plus the 2% coupon rate, for a combined yield of 9%. Often, bond premium amortization occurs because market interest rates change just before the release of a bond issue. Rather than rewrite the contracts, the company sells the bonds at a premium.

## Bonds:

Bond issuers debit the amortized amount to the premium on bonds payable account and credit the interest income account monthly. Corporations holding bond investments credit the bond investment account — a long-term asset — and debit interest expense when they recognize amortization at month’s end. Lighting Process, Inc. issues \$10,000 ten‐year bonds, with a coupon interest rate of 9% and semiannual interest payments payable on June 30 and Dec. 31, issued on July 1 when the market interest rate is 10%. The acquisition of a zero coupon debt instrument at a premium and with a negative yield was not contemplated when the prior regulations were revised in 1997 . When bonds are sold at a discount or a premium, the interest rate is adjusted from the face rate to an effective rate that is close to the market rate when the bonds were issued. Therefore, bond discounts or premiums have the effect of increasing or decreasing the interest expense on the bonds amortizing bond premium over their life. Under these conditions,it is necessary to amortize the discount or premium over the life of the bonds by using either the straight-line method or the effective interest method. The debt received an S&P rating of B- when it was issued. The \$12.50 per year in interest on a \$625 investment is still only a 2% return, but when the bond matures 7 years later, the investor also gains an additional \$375 over what was paid for the bond.

## What Is The Difference Between Amortizing A Discount Or Premium With A Straight

The bond premium of \$4,100 must be amortized to Interest Expense over the life of the bond. This amortization will cause the bond’s book value to decrease from \$104,100 on January 1, 2021 to \$100,000 just prior to the bond maturing on December 31, 2025. The indirect method computes cash flow from operating activities based on net income. Net income is not cash flow and accountants must adjust this by including any cash inflow and cash outflow that do not count as revenues and expenses, and by excluding any non-cash revenues and non-cash expenses. For example, when an accountant previously uses a non-cash expense to calculate the net income, the accountant adds back the amount of non-cash expense to solve for cash flow.

• The effective interest method will allow you to record more interest revenue in early years and less interest revenue in later years.
• This is favorable to the taxpayer who might otherwise have to pay tax on the additional interest income without having received cash.
• For example, if the you bought a bond for \$104,100 with a face value of \$100,000, then the premium is \$4,100 or \$104,100 – \$100,000.The bond premium is the amount you’ll amortize over the life of the bond.
• Stakeholders said this accounting results in the recognition of too much interest income before a borrower calls the debt security, followed by the recognition of a loss on the call date.
• See Table 1 for interest expense calculated using the straight‐line method of amortization and carrying value calculations over the life of the bond.

Based on the remaining payment schedule of the bond and A’s basis in the bond, A’s yield is 8.07 percent, compounded annually. Therefore, the bond premium allocable to the accrual period is \$1,118.17 (\$10,000−\$8,881.83). The primary advantage of premium bond amortization is that it is a tax deduction in the current tax year. If the interest paid on the bond is taxable, the premium paid on the bond can be amortized, or in other words, a part of the premium can be utilized towards reducing the amount of taxable income. Also, it leads to the reduction of the cost basis of the taxable bond for premium amortized in each period. Low Flow Inc. issues 10-year bonds with a maturity value of \$200,000.

This will be easy to retrieve because you’ll be given the yield at time of purchase.You can also calculate current yield by dividing the annual cash flows earned by the bond by the market price. Amortizable Bond Premium refers to the cost of premium paid above the face value of a bond. The face value of a bond is also called “par value”, it is the original cost of a stock or the amount paid to the holder of a bond. Amortizable Bond Premium is the difference between the amount a bond is purchased and the face value/par value of the bond. Any excess amount paid for a bond which is over and above its face value is amortizable bond premium. Of this paragraph , this same amount would be taken into income at the same time had A used annual accrual periods. As mentioned earlier, if market interest rates fall, any given bond with a fixed coupon rate will appear more attractive, and it will result in the bond trading at a premium. In this lesson we will explore the statement of changes in equity. Specifically, we will walk through the six steps to preparing the statement and practice these steps with a simple example. Learn the definition of corporate finance and see the importance of its different roles in business decisions. Learn about capital budgeting and capital sources through an example.